Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) was a British naturalist who spent many years in the Malay Archipelago - nowadays Indonesia and Malaysia - and on the basis of his observations of its flora and fauna arrived at the theory of natural selection independent of Darwin; learning of their co-discovery led them to publish it in a joint paper. Some of his evolutionary writings are on-line, though The Malay Archipelago is not. In later years he became a Spiritualist.