``ozone hole cases global warming''
Several months after I wrote that passage, the following appeared in the Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 14 March 1994, p. 38:
The mysterious, world-wide decline in populations of frogs, toads and salamanders - which has been puzzling and alarming biologists at least since 1989 - might be the result of increased solar radiation leaking through a thinned ozone shield. When researchers announced that possibility two weeks ago [in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences], many news reports left the alarming impression than an increase in ultraviolet radiation was clearly threatening the world's amphibians. In fact, no such long-term increase has been observed.

Moreover, the biologist who made the headlines believes that another cause is just as likely: An amphibian-killing fungal disease has been spreading throughout the world's aquatic habitats and is known to be killing off at least one species.

And, the Oregon State University scientist says, it is possible that both factors are at work, not to mention still other causes resulting from various forms of environmental degradation.

``We know it can't be as simple as UV because some of the species that are declining lay their eggs in shaded waters,'' says Andre R. Blaustein. ``There's got to be other causes.''

From the frogs' point of view, the difference between being fried by UV and wiped out by fungi is doubtless acadmic, but not for us. We thinned the ozone, after all. Of the two possible simplification of the story, the one which caught on was the one which pandered to apolcalypticism - and a sense of human power and importance.

an underlying simplicty which we can grasp
Cf. the remarkable sonnet of Edna St. Vincent Millay:

I will put Chaos into fourteen lines
And keep him there; and let him thence escape
If he be lucky; let him twist, and ape
Flood, fire, and demon - his adroit designs
Will strain to nothing in the strict confines
Of this sweet order, where, in pious rape,
I hold his essence and amorphous shape,
Till he with Order mingles and combines.
Past are the hours, the years of our duress,
His arrogance, our awful servitude:
I have him. He is nothing more nor less
Than something simple not yet understood;
I shall not even force him to confess;
Or answer. I will only make him good.

The best, and certainly the most balanced, explanation of post-modernism known to me is Rosenau. While Sarup covers more ground, he is far less clear, and I doubt that many others will find his ``If it's not Marxist, it's crap!'' attitude as amusing as I did.
Horror victorianum
See The Plato Cult, ch. 1. illo tempore
See his Cosmos and History. I have never figured out why the library of Berkeley's school of architecture has a copy.
``aeropoets'', ``aeropainters'', etc.
The Futurists were not unique in their fascination with airplanes. John Kenneth Galbraith records that an American railroad running on the Atlantic coast and hence called Seaboard Air Lines benefitted from the stock market boom of the 1920s from investors who thought it was an aviation company with good growth propsects.
The ``First Modernism''
See the first chapters of Golomshtok.
The ``Hitler Myth''
See Kershaw. J. B. S. Haldane said at the time, this was twenty years behind the vanguard of research
Admittedly Haldane was not speaking directly of the Futurists. See his Daedalus.
For the merger of Christian apocalypticism and saucer myths, see Evans, pp. 168ff.

Such beliefs are taken to their logical and hilarious conclusion by the Church of the SubGenius (though admittedly no one has every figured out if they're entirely serious). It nicely illustrates points made below: despite a lack of formal hierarchy and coordination, SubGenii make ingenious and persistent use of both the symbolic media (especially the Net) and the aural media (public-access cable, Church-produced videos which circulate among members) to spread the Church across the United States and beyond. See Kinney, and the Bible of the Church, The Book of the SubGenius.

Dr. Raci Bademli's engaging name for the class of technical and other specialists who, coming from all over the world, are educated at one of about twenty-five universities in Europe and North America, and work for, international institutions, and are more committed to their institutions than their native countries. In a sense, we've been down this road before.
...abstract visual representations
``Just as the people of our century were the first to find beauty in a machine - even in a well-polished piece of a machine - so the new physics was the first science to provide images of spectra and tracks of particles which can be hung on the wall like pictures.''
- Jacques Barzun, The Energies of Art, p. 356.
Images sometimes migrate from the symbolic to the aural culture, shedding their meaning along the way. Fractals, for instance, after beginning on the border between mathematics and physics, became a folk art of the computer-literate, and then a decorative motif among the devotees of ``alternative'' music, appearing prominently among the icons of the well-publicized Lollapalooza festivals. The last transition was eased by the resemblence between some fractals, tie-dyes and patterns common in psychedelic art. Indeed, I was told fractals were psychedelic art by people wearing and selling tee-shirt showing Mandelbrot and Julia sets at the 1992 Lollapalooza.
While best-sellers, newspapers and magazines are not (yet) electronic, treating them as things outside the aural culture would be a distinction without a difference. They are produced by the same companies as the rest of the aural culture, and their contents are interchangeable with them. This is sometimes painfully obvious - the Time-Warner movie Batman, for instance, was the subject of a laudatory cover story in Time magazine, several novels and ``behind the scenes'' books from Warner Books, the sound-track was released by a subsidiary record label, there were licensed shoes, clothes, placemats, etc., etc. For this episode in particular, see Fussell,, pp. 123-125. For the economics and mechanics of the aural media in general, see Twitchell's horrifyingly clear Carnival Culture.
...People's Republic of China recently banned satellite dishes
The Economist, 16 October 1993, p. 37
Growth of bandwidth
For current progress towards the goal of unlimited capacity, and things to use it which might just be worth paying attention to, see Brand.
See Boorstin. The first and fourth chapters are particularly concerned with what he calls the Graphic Revolution,which took bandwidth to unprecedented levels and created the need for pseudo-events.
Sheik Omar Abdel Raman
Whether or not the Sheik is the West's enemy has nothing to do with my argument, which rests on the fact that it thinks he is.
...American middle or upper-middle class
What follows draws heavily on Galbraith's classic The New Industrial State, especially chapters XI-XV. Galbraith wrote in 1967, at which date ``corporate'' had not become a common term of derision (as in, ``corporate rock''), large institutions were, or at any rate seemed, far more secure than they do now, and superstition had not attained its current prominence in the academy and beyond.
``Twenty-four percent of American bachelor's degrees are in `business,' and more master's and doctor's degrees are awarded in `education' than anything else.'' Fussell, p. 66. Consequentially, US schools are among the worst in the developed world, and the American industrial system is crumbling. While the bankruptcy of Americans' institutions makes them particularly liable to post-modernize, similar forces act in all developed countries, and those parts of the Third World which are' actually developing, e.g., the Indian middle class, which is larger than the entire population of France.
Even academics who loudly proclaim their own ``voicelessness'' and ``marginalization'' do so in the expectation of being ``empowered'' thereby. For the way power in the contemporary academy accrues to the most vocally powerless, see Roiphe, ch. 6.
It is perhaps only a matter of time until someone markets the Satori Circuit: a device to simultaneously stimulate the pleasure center and frontal lobes of the brain, while inhibited the speech center, producing an incommunicable feeling of exaltation and insight . For a more serious look at brain machines, see Joshua Hammer. Cf. Barbara Ehrenreich's novel, Kipper's Game.
Science and the New Age
Kaminer, pp. 113-114.

The related tradition of blending science and edifying non sequiturs has a peculiar and interesting history, not the least because it has been encouraged by eminent scientists - not those published by Bantam, who strangely enough tend to uncompromising rationalism, but such luminaries of the early twentieth century as Sir Arthur Eddington and Sir James Jeans. In books like New Pathways in Science and Philosophy and Physics they first floated such staples of pop science as the notion that ``the new physics'' ends the conflict between science and religion, proves the existence of God, the soul, free will, and other metaphysical treasures which were as pearls cast before swine as far as the old physics was concerned, and that relativity, or the uncertainty principle, requires a radical revision of the concept of scientific knowledge, if not its complete abandonment. That other physicists reached no such conclusions - much less criticism by philosophers, such as L. Susan Stebbing's Philosophy and the Physicists - did nothing to uproot these notions.

Recently, chaos theory, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and other sciences of complexity have spawned a similar outburst - about the deaths of reductionism, of ``linear'' thinking, yea, even of ``the Cartesian ideal of knowledge as privileged in and by the Western philosophical discourse'' - with Prigogine in a role analogous to that of Eddington or Jeans. Le roi est mort, vive le roi!

Membership of medieval millenarian sects
See Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, ch. 3.
Cargo Cults and the Ghost Dance
For the cargo cults, see Worley. I am unaware of an equivalent study on the Ghost Dance.
Comforts of apocalypticism
I have been unable to find a comprehensive study of modern (never mind post-modern!) apocalypticism proper. When Prophecy Fails, by Leon Festinger, Henry Riecken and Stanley Schachter, is a study by three sociologists of a cult in a midwestern suburb which anticipated the end of the world, and their salvation by flying saucers, in the early 1950s. Aside from the total absurdity of their world-view, the people depicted are disturbingly ordinary. [], is a survey of some of the more colorful apocalyptic groups, and a guide to what literature exists - some of it by the apocalyptics themselves. For apocalypticism in my extended sense, the situation is correspondingly worse.

Norman Cohn's Pursuit of the Millennium is a fascinating history of European apocalyptic movements from the later Hebrew prophets through the early seventeenth century; I have borrowed his ideas shamelessly. (I have not yet had a chance to read his Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come, where he attempts to find the roots of apocalypticism in Zoroaster's modification of archaic combat myths.) Some of the later mutations of the idea are traced by Arendt.

Or $1 on the streets of Berkeley. Incredibly, this is less than the nominal-dollar price in the late 1960s, vide Hunter Thompson's lament in Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas for acid freaks who ``thought they could buy enlightenment for three dollars a tab.''
Ecstasy made in Hungary and Latvia for the British market
The Economist, 13 November 1993, p. 68. As it drily notes :``Oh, by the way, ecstasy is illegal in Britain.''
The classic analysis of mysticism is James. Grinspoon and Bakalar, is, despite its semi-encyclopedic nature, accessable to the laity and (as the title hints) favorable to the cause. On shamanism and other ``archaic techniques of ecstasy'', see Eliade. For their post-modern descendants, see Clifton.

For the role of mysticism in furthering the progress of science, see Needham, pp. 86-100, and the references therein.

I am forced to note that psychedelics are endemic in Silicon Valley and its cultural satellites; but by their own account, these people are into drugs for the same reason they are into computers, viz., kicks.