Quine's Mathematical Logic
There were logicians in ancient China, contemporaneous with Aristotle, known as the Ming Chia, or School of Names. Only a few fragments of their books survive, many of them in quotation in Chuang Tzu. (See A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, Hu Shih, Development of Logical Method in Ancient China, Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 2, and Arthur Waley, Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China.)
India, on the other hand, has a logical tradition which pre-dates Aristotle, of which I am almost completely ignorant. This might suggest that formal logic is a peculiarity of Indo-European speakers, but this would be to ignore the adoption of Aristotle by Arab- and Turkic-speaking Muslim during the Middle Ages, to say nothing of such eminent modern logicians as von Neumann (Hungarian), Hintikka (Finnish) and Wang (Chinese).